- Russia has a well-developed counterterrorism program, which grew out of late Soviet-era operations directed at minority nationalist and counterrevolutionary organizations. While terrorist attacks under the totalitarian regime were rare, the opening of Russia’s borders, the spread of ethnic violence, the growth of transnational crime syndicates, and narcotics trafficking created an environment in the 1990s that made terrorism a tangible threat to the new Russian Federation. However, spillover from the first Chechen War proved the greatest catalyst for developing a robust antiterrorism program as Islamist militants and other groups targeted civilians in the North Caucasus, Moscow, and other parts of the country.In 1998, the Federal Law on Combating Terrorism was passed to more effectively combat terrorist groups, and clearly delineated the role of the FSB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) as the principal agencies charged with counterterrorism. However, the other agencies that assist in the effort include the Foreign Intelligence Service, Federal Protection Service, Defense Ministry, and Federal Border Service. With the apartment bombings, the beginning of the second Chechen War, and Vladimir Putin’s ascendance in 1999, counterterrorism policy shifted into high gear, with new powers accruing to the relevant agencies. After the September 11 attacks, the Kremlin began to cooperate more extensively with European, American, and Chinese counterterrorism agencies to address threats emanating from the Middle East, Central Asia, and elsewhere. Russia has also cooperated with Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, and India on international counterterrorism activities.On the home front, surveillance expanded exponentially and the media were reined in, particularly after the Nord-Ost theater siege in 2002. In Chechnya and its surrounding republics, counterterror operations led to frequent accusations of extrajudicial killings, “disappearances,” and torture. Some targeted assassinations, such as that of Ibn al-Khattab in 2002, were also made public as part of Russian strategy. In 2004, two Russian intelligence agents were convicted of killing the former Chechen president Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev in Qatar. In 2006, an updated Law on Counteraction to Terrorism stipulated that the Russian government could act beyond Russian soil to deal with terrorist threats, mirroring United States policy enacted under George W. Bush. Over time, Putin has used counterterrorism as a reason for expanding his vertical of power, particularly after the Beslan crisis, which led to the electoral reforms of 2004-2005.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Counterterrorism — Until the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, the Soviet Union broadly defined opposition to the Soviet state as terrorism. Millions went to the gulag or the grave for terrorism offensives such as owning a book of Nikolai Bukharin or telling a… … Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence
counterterrorism — noun Counterterrorism is used before these nouns: ↑chief, ↑effort … Collocations dictionary
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counterterrorism — /kaʊntəˈtɛrərɪzəm/ (say kowntuh teruhrizuhm) noun 1. measures taken by a government, etc., involving such activities as intelligence gathering, police operations, maintenance of security provisions, etc., to prevent or control terrorism.… … Australian English dictionary
counterterrorism — Operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism. Also called CT. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; terrorism … Military dictionary
counterterrorism — counterterrorist, n., adj. /kown teuhr ter euh riz euhm/, n. terrorism in reaction to or retaliation for some previous act of terrorism. [1965 70; COUNTER + TERRORISM] * * * … Universalium
counterterrorism — noun political or military activities designed to prevent or thwart terrorism. Derivatives counterterrorist noun … English new terms dictionary
counterterrorism — coun·ter·terrorism … English syllables
counterterrorism — UK [ˈkaʊntə(r)ˌterərɪz(ə)m] / US [ˈkaʊntərˌterərɪz(ə)m] noun [uncountable] the actions and methods of a country that are intended to stop the activities of people who use violence to achieve political aims Derived word: counterterrorist adjective … English dictionary
counterterrorism — noun a strategy intended to prevent or counter terrorism • Topics: ↑terrorism, ↑act of terrorism, ↑terrorist act • Hypernyms: ↑scheme, ↑strategy … Useful english dictionary